Recycling of Spent Batteries from Electric Drive Vehicles
In 2014, T&MEC’s top-engineers, as a part of a NMetAU team, successfully completed the R&D GIPP project BNL-T2-0372-UA “Recycling of Spent Batteries from Electric Drive Vehicles” launched by the U.S. Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory with the main task to develop a unique, energy-efficient high-temperature furnace technology for thermal treatment of carbon materials recovered from used lithium-ion batteries.
Participants of GIPP project BNL-T2-0372-UA.
Left to right:
Dr. Serhii S. Fedorov (Sr. Scientist at NMetAU / T&MEC)
Vitaliy I. Lutsenko (Sr. Designer at Yuzhnoe SDO),
Oleksiy G. Gogotsi (project team leader at MRC, Kyiv)
Mykola V. Livitan, (Sr. Scientist at NMetAU)
Kateryna Brattseva (Marketing service at Yuzhnoe SDO)
U.S. Industrial Partner,
Professor Mykhailo V. Hubynskyi, (NMetAU / T&MEC, Project Manager)
Yuzhnoye SDO, Dnipro, August 2013
During the last two decades, the market of lithium-ion batteries has been characterized by a dramatic growth as compared to other electrochemical energy storing devices. One of the main components of common lithium-ion batteries is high quality graphite. A standard 18 650 accumulator (65 mm high and 18 mm dia) contains about 10 grams of graphite in the negative electrode and 0.5 grams of graphite in the positive electrode. Growing consumption of batteries results in the increase in the market of graphite for lithium-ion accumulators. In 2001, 3000 tons of coal were utilized for lithium-ion batteries production (6,000 tons in 2003, 11,000 tons in 2004), and in 2012, the world consumption of graphite amounted 75,000 tons with the market value around US $ 0.8 Billion.
The developed technology allows to remove such impurities as metals, organics, residual sulphur and other contaminants at 2000-2500°C in electro-thermal fluidized bed. To put this technology to practice, the project team developed a number of successive technological operations and the appropriate equipment ensuring the efficiency of the whole process and high quality of the finished product. The operations include: preliminary drying; storing and feeding the material into the furnace; material treatment and cooling.
The main results of the project are:
- the operating prototype of the small technological line (10 kg/hr) which was intended to test a number of design solutions and check technologies of treatment modes.
- the industrial equipment comprising a furnace (1000 kg/hr) with electro-thermal bed, product coolers, auger feeders, an after-burner, a cyclone and a dryer.
New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles
From 2011 to 2013, researchers and engineers of the T&MEC along with the Material Research Centre (MRC, Kyiv) in the frame of the International R&G Project "New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles" designed and developed the equipment for production of advanced carbon materials from petroleum coke. The participants of the Project from the US were the Argonne National Laboratory. Besides the T&MEC and MRC, the Ukrainian team was represented by the Gas Institute (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) and the National Science Center (Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology). The supervision of the Project was conducted by US Department of Energy (funding organization) and Science and Technology Center in Ukraine.
The project outcomes include the following developed equipment:
- The electric calciner of 1000 kg/hr productivity for treatment of green petroleum coke. The material is heated by means of electric current passing through the moving bed. The operating temperature of the unit is in the range 900-1200°C.
Electric Calciner and Cooler
- The heat exchanger (cooler) for the bulk material to cool down the final product. The cooler provides the decrease in the product’s temperature from 1200°C to 300°C. Inside the cooler, the material passes through the water-cooled pipe-section. The productivity of the cooler is 1000 kg/hr.
- The water scrubber for exhaust gases cleaning from sulphur oxide and dust. As an absorbent, the scrubber utilizes the water suspension of CaCO3. The unit’s capacity is 400 m3/hr.
- The auger feeder for raw material of 1000 kg/hr productivity.